Allogrooming- social grooming between members of the same species

Anthropocentric-regarding humans as the central or most important species

Bimaturism- difference in developmental timing between males and females of the same species  (although male orangutans also display bimaturism within the sex)

Biosphere-life on earth, or the global ecological system

Bush meat-meat from animals that are not domesticated

Carnivore-an organism that consumes mainly or solely animal flesh

Cercopithecine-a sub-family of Old World Monkeys inhabiting Africa identified by their ischial callosities and their cheek pouches, in which they store food.

Citizen science- a type of scientific research where part or all of the project is done by amateur

Common ancestor-simply an ancestor that two or more species have in common

Correlation-a connection or relationship between two or more things showing interdependence (note this connection or relationship is not necessarily causation)

Corridor- an area of land that connects to other habitats. Example: a man-made corridor of posts and ropes connecting two stretches of forest, allowing arboreal primates to travel between the two

Cultural relativism-the notion that our beliefs and thoughts on civilization are relative and "true" only so far as our own culture goes

Dead zones-areas in the ocean where oxygen levels are low

Dichromatic vision- having two types of function cones in the eye, typically blue and green

Diurnal-active primarily during the day

Domesticated-bred or trained to need and accept the aid of humans

Echolocation-the location of objects by emitting sound waves and listening to the echo, also used for navigation

Ecological intelligence hypothesis- foods that are fleeting in their availability and scattered geographically would require primates to have larger ranges and the cognitive capability to forage optimally for those ephemeral and scattered foods.

Ecological niche-a position or role taken by a kind of organism within its community

Effective population size (genetics)- the number of breeding individuals in an ideal population that would display the same gene frequencies as would occur randomly due to genetic drift

Endocast- the internal cast of a hollow object, often the cranium

Ex situ conservation-conservation practices taking place away from the original habitat, literally "off-site"

Extractive foraging-manipulating the environment to obtain foods that are embedded

Fitness-a measure of the number of offspring one produces that survive to maturity

Folivore-an organism that consumes mainly or solely leaves

Frugivore-an organism that consumes mainly or solely fruit

Fundamental niche-the entire role/area a species could utilize in its niche if free from limitations

Gene therapy- an experimental technique in which effective genes are transplanted to replace genes that are either defective or missing in order to treat a disease

Genetic drift-variation in gene frequencies in a population due to random disappearance of genes given that certain individuals will not reproduce

Genome- the set of genetic information (set of chromosomes) present in a cell or in an organism

Greenhouse gases-gases in the atmosphere that absorb and emit infrared radiation such as carbon dioxide, warming the planet

Gumivore-an organism that consumes mainly or solely gums

Haplorhine- suborder of primates including tarsiers, all species of monkeys, and the great apes characterized by having dry noses, a brain-to-body ratio that is greater than strepsirrhines, a postorbital palate unlike the postorbital bar seen in strepsirrhines.

Hibernation- a state of reduced metabolism and body temperature lasting multiple days

Hormones-naturally occurring substances that affect or regulate the activity of other cells or organs

Interspecific competition-competition between different species for the same resources

Insectivore-an organism that consumes mainly or solely insects

In situ conservation-conservation taking place within the natural habitat, or "on site"

Ischial callosities-found on Old World Monkeys, these calluses on either side of the rump are hairless thickened patches of skin that have toughened due to repeated contact and rubbing with tree branches and etc.

Last common ancestor-the most recent common ancestor of two or more species

Life history-the sequence of events from birth to death related to reproduction

Monochromatic vision- having one type of functional cone, thus leading to the ability to see only in shades of black and white

Natal group-the group in which one was born

New World Monkeys- monkeys found in the new world (Central and South America), including the Aotidae, Atelidae , Callitrichidae, Cebidae, and the Pitheciidae. This is the superfamily Ceboidea. Spider monkeys, howler monkeys, capuchins, and owl monkeys are examples of NW monkeys

Nocturnal-active primarily at night

Old World Monkeys-monkeys found in the old world (Africa and Asia). This is the superfamily Cercopithecoidea. Baboons, macaques, vervets, langurs, and colobus monkeys are examples of OW monkeys

Omnivore- organism that consumes a diet of both plant and animal origin
Phylogenetic tree-a visual representation of the evolutionary relationships between species

Keystone species-any species that plays a critical role in how the ecosystem functions

Realized niche-the actual role/area a species utilizes

Salmon run-when salmon return to the freshwater they were born in and spawn themselves

Secondary compounds-digestive inhibitors or toxins in plants designed to deter herbivores. Examples include tannins or lignin.

Sexual dimorphism- distinct difference between the males and females of a species (not including reproductive organs). ex: manes of male lions or larger size of male gorillas

Scala naturae- the idea that there is an inherent hierarchy of nature with a perfect god at the top, angels right below god, kings below the angels, and animals, birds, worms and then rocks at the very bottom with much in between the kings and the animals. 

Spawn-males release sperm and females release ova into the water

Species-a group of organisms that are similar and capable of interbreeding

Strepsirrhine- suborder of primates that includes lemurs, lorises, galagoes, and pottos characterized by having a wet nose, larger olfactory lobe, a bony bar on the outer orbit that supports the eyeball, and some have a tapetum lucidum

Tapetum lucidum- a layer of tissue in the eye that reflects light back into the retina so that more light is available to photoreceptors, allowing animals to see better at night

Tannins-bitter tasting compounds produced by plants that deter animals from feeding on the plant

Taxonomy-the branch of science that includes the classification, identification, and description of organisms

Torpor- a state of reduced metabolism and body temperature lasting less than 24 hours

Trichromatic vision- having three types of function cones in the eye, typically blue, green and red

Watershed-the area of land where all of the rain or water under the land drains to

Wildlife corridor-connects two habitats that have been disconnected, usually through human activity of some sort

Zoonotic disease-a disease that can be transmitted to humans from animals or vice versa

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